Presentation on theme: "GCSE Astronomy Controlled Assessment"— Presentation transcript:
1 GCSE Astronomy Controlled Assessment
Two tasks that make up 25% of GCSE marksAn unaided observation and an aided observation chosen from the approved listUnaided and aided observations can’t be from same row of approved listIf more than one task completed the best mark countsEach task marked using the same markscheme giving 2 marks out of 20The 20 marks are split into marks out of 5 for each of the four sectionsDesign /5 Observation /5 Analysis/5 Evaluation/5Design, analysis and evaluation completed under conditions of high controlObservation is completed under low controlOnline robotic telescopes can be used for aided observation of Messier objectsTotal marks = ( A*=34 A=29 B=23 C=17 D=14 E=12 F=10 G=8 )
2 Unaided Observations Aided Observations Lunar Features Lunar Features
Produce a series of naked-eye drawings of three lunar surface features. Use them to show their changing appearance at different lunar phases.Produce a series of telescopic drawings and/or photographs of three lunar surface features. Use them to show their changing appearance at different lunar phases.
3 Unaided Observations Aided Observations Meteor Shower
Meteor Shower PhotographyObserve a meteor shower. Record meteor trails on a drawing of the stellar background from sketches and estimate magnitudes of the meteors. Locate and show the position of the radiant.Use long-exposure photography to obtain photographs of a meteor shower. Estimate magnitudes of the meteors. Locate and show the position of the radiant.
4 Unaided Observations Aided Observations
Drawings of Lunar or Solar EclipsePhotographs of Lunar or Solar EclipseUsing a suitable method of observation (lunar - direct, solar - pinhole projection), produce a series of drawings showing the progress of a lunar or solar eclipse.Using a suitable method of observation (lunar - direct, solar - projection), produce a series of photographs showing the progress of a lunar or solar eclipse.
5 Unaided Observations Aided Observations Constellation Drawings
Constellation PhotographyObserve and make detailed drawings of three different constellations, recording dates, times, seeing and weather conditions and noting colours (if possible) and magnitudes by comparison with reference stars.Produce photographs of three different constellations, recording dates, times, seeing and weather conditions. Use the photographs to identify colours and magnitudes by comparison with reference stars.
6 Unaided Observations Aided Observations Drawings of Celestial Event
Telescopic Drawings or Photographs of Celestial EventProduce a series of drawings to record the passage of a suitable celestial event, for example a transit, occultation or comet.Produce a series of detailed telescopic drawings or photographs to record the passage of a suitable celestial event, for example a transit, occultation or comet.
7 Unaided Observations Aided Observations Shadow Stick Sundial
Use a shadow stick to record the direction of the Sun at different times on at least two days and hence determine (a) the time of local noon and (b) the observer’s longitude.On at least three widely-spaced dates, compare the time shown on a correctly-aligned sundial with local mean time. Use these data to determine the accuracy of the sundial used.
8 Unaided Observations Aided Observations Levels of Light Pollution
Photographic Measurement of Levels of Light PollutionUse repeated observations of the faintest stars observable to quantify the effect of light pollution at two different sites.Use the magnitudes of the faintest stars visible in long exposure photographs to quantify the effect of light pollution at two different sites.
9 Unaided Observations Aided Observations Sunspots Sunspots
Use a pinhole to project an image of the Sun onto a suitable background and observe and record sunspots over a sufficiently long period of time to determine the Sun’s rotation period.Use a small telescope to project an image of the Sun onto a suitable background and observe and record sunspots over a sufficiently long period of time to determine the Sun’s rotation period.
10 Unaided Observations Aided Observations Light Curve of a Variable Star
Use a series of naked-eye estimates of the magnitude of a suitable variable star over a sufficient period of time to determine the period of the star.Use a series of telescopic estimates of the magnitude of a suitable variable star over a sufficient period of time to determine the period of the star. Star
11 Unaided Observations Aided Observations Estimating Stellar Density
Measuring Stellar DensityBy counting the numbers of visible stars within a certain area of sky, estimate and compare the density of stars in the sky, parallel with and perpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way.Use binocular/telescopic observations or original photographs to measure and compare the density of stars in the sky, parallel with and perpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way.
12 Aided Observations Drawings of Messier Objects
Use binoculars /telescope/robotic telescope to produce detailed drawings and/or photographs of at least three Messier/NGC objects.M42 Great Orion NebulaM41 Open cluster in Canis Major
13 Aided Observations Measuring the Sidereal Day
Take long-exposure photographs of the circumpolar stars around Polaris or the south celestial pole and use them to determine the length of the sidereal day.
14 The MarkschemeDesign / 5Observation / 5Analysis / 5Evaluation / 5
15 Design No procedure designed.
High ControlNo procedure designed.1Outline a simple procedure for the observations, using basic astronomical terminology.2-3Astronomical knowledge and understanding used to decide on the most appropriate site, time, equipment for observations.Spelling, punctuation and grammar used with reasonable accuracy. Limited use of astronomical terminology.4-5Detailed astronomical knowledge and understanding used to design the most appropriate observing programme with a range of sites, times and instruments evaluated.Spelling, punctuation and grammar used with considerable accuracy. Good range of astronomical terminology used correctly.
16 Observation 1 2-3 4-5 No observations completed.
Limited ControlNo observations completed.1Simple observations completed, providing some data.A few observational details included.2-3Sound observations completed and recorded, providing adequate data for the task.Clear and accurate observational details included.4-5Excellent programme of observations completed and recorded, providing conclusive data for the task.Full observational details included clearly and accurately.
17 Analysis High Control No analysis on the observations. 1
No analysis on the observations.1Simple comments on what is shown by the observations, using basic astronomical terminology.2-3Conclusions or calculations derived from observational data used to address the task set.Spelling, punctuation and grammar used with reasonable accuracy. Limited use ofastronomical terminology.4-5Full analysis of the observational data, resulting in clear conclusions related to the task set.Spelling, punctuation and grammar used with considerable accuracy. Good range ofastronomical terminology used correctly.
18 Evaluation High Control No evaluation of the observation. 1
No evaluation of the observation.1Simple comment on the accuracy of the observations, using basic astronomical terminology.2-3Supported statement of the accuracy of the observational data obtained.Feasible suggestions for improvements or extensions to the observations.Spelling, punctuation and grammar used with reasonable accuracy. Limited use ofastronomical terminology.4-5Clearly reasoned quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the observational data obtained.Detailed suggestions for improvements or extensions to the observations.Spelling, punctuation and grammar used with considerable accuracy. Good range of astronomical terminology used correctly.
There are 88 constellations.
Ptolemy listed 48 constellations in his Almagest.
In 1590, Tycho Brahe added Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair), although this seems to have an earlier origin originally.
In 1679, the Southern Cross was separated out from Centaurus.
In 1690, several were added by Hevelius (e.g. Canes Venatici (Hunting Dogs) from a part of Ursa Major and often pictured harassing the heels of the Bear).
Fourteen Southern constellations were supplied by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille.
According to the scheme introduced by Johann Bayer in 1603, the brighter stars are officially classified within each constellation by Greek letters, e.g. Regulus is classified as α-Leonis (using the Latin genitive form of the constellation name). In common usage, the brighter stars are usually known by their (mainly arabic) names, e.g. Regulus in the previous example. However, Alpha Centauri in the South, and therefore only comparatively recently known to the 'Northerners' who made all the rules, is known exclusively by its Latin name.
Although you might habe thought that Bayer would place his stars in a definite sequence from brightest to less bright, it appears that apart from labeling the brightest star as α, the rest are (1) grouped into broad brightness classes and then (2) within each class they were labelled sequentially from one end of the constellation to the other. Note that Betelgeuse is α-Orionis despite being less bright than Rigel which is β-Orionis, implying that Betelgeuse has varied in brightness since receiving its classification.
Also known by its English name as the Great Bear.
Its seven brightest stars form the (Britain) or Big Dipper (America). In literature, such as Shakespeare, you can read it referred to as 'Charles' Wain' - Charles apparently being Charlemagne and Wain being an old word for wagon.
Merak and Dubhe point towards Polaris in
Megrez and Phad point 'downwards' towards Regulus in and 'upwards' to Deneb in .
The tail of the Plough points towards Arcturus in . Following this line along, you arrive at Spica in Virgo.
The W-shaped constellation of lies on the other side of Polaris to Ursa Major.
Mizar is actually a double, with Alcor. In this particular case the stars are close together in the sky as seen by us, but are not actually in close contact in the real sense. Mizar itself though is actually a binary and can be viewed as such through a telescope. (It was the first telescopic discovery of a double star, by G.B. Riccioli in the 1600s). Furthermore, each component of this binary is itself binary - they are spectroscopic binaries, the first spectroscopic binaries to be discovered, in 1889. Alcor is also a spectroscopic binary, so in fact we have six stars all told.
The magnitudes of the individual stars are
from which you can see that the straightforward 'greek alphabetical' order is not obeyed precisely.
Interesting objects in/around Ursa Major include
- M51, the Whirpool Galaxy, the first Spiral to be seen as a spiral. A face-on spiral. NGC5195 appears to be interacting with M51.
- M81 Spiral Galaxy.
- M82 a Starburst galaxy.
- M97 The Owl Nebula, a planetary nebula.
- M101 Face-on spiral.
Orion contains two first-magnitude stars, Betelgeuse and Rigel. Betelgeuse is a red , a variable star and potential Supernova. The three stars of Mintaka, Alnilam and Alnitak make up Orion's Belt, below which is M42, the Orion Nebula, an HII region.
Following the belt downwards to the left leads to Sirius in , the brightest star in the sky.
Above Sirius and to the left of Orion, lie Procyon in and Castor and Pollux in . In a light polluted sky, these stars will probably be very obvious (paradoxically). Incidentally, Castor is actually a 'six-star' system - it is a double with each component being a spectroscopic binary and there exists a fainter component which is also a spectroscopic binary.
Following the belt upwards to the right leads to the orange/red star Aldabaran in (and the Hyades open cluster), and further on to the Pleaides, an open cluster. Yet further on, the line of projection will come to
, the Scorpion who killed Orion, is in the Sky when Orion is not.
Occasionally, and unofficially, referred to as the 'Northern Cross', which is worth mentioning precisely because it does has this shape. It is more distinct than the Southern Cross in that it has a bright star marking its center. The 'long branch' of this cross has at one end :
Deneb , one of the brightest stars in the sky (as seen by us - the 19th. brightest) but whereas most of the bright stars are bright because they are fairly close to us, Deneb is intrinsically very bright and is at a very large distance from us (1630 Light Years).
Albireo a colorful double star - a third magnitude yellow star and a fifth magnitude blue star.
Cygnus lies in the Milky Way. An intervening dark nebula causes the Milky Way to be split in two thru most of Cygnus (Altair Rift?).